Jeannine Basso

100 ouvrages
Imprimés XVIe-XIXe siècles

Jeannine Basso (1927-2015), après avoir consacré une thèse de doctorat à la littérature épistolaire italienne à l’époque moderne (L’épistolographie en langue italienne, 1538-1662), a publié de nombreux articles sur le sujet et exercé une charge de professeur au département d’Italien de l’Université de Lille. Sa thèse, soutenue en 1982, a constitué la matière d’un ouvrage de référence publié en 1990 : Le genre épistolaire en langue italienne, 1538-1662 : répertoire chronologique et analytique.

Conformément à sa volonté, la Bibliothèque Mazarine a recueilli en 2014 une partie de sa bibliothèque personnelle, soit une centaine d’éditions anciennes directement liées à son domaine de recherche : recueils de correspondances personnelles, anthologies d’épistoliers célèbres, traités de correspondance et manuels de secrétariat. La quasi-totalité du fonds est en italien, plus de la moitié des éditions ont été imprimées à Venise, 15 % à Rome et 5 % à Florence, le reste dans une quinzaine d’autres cités italiennes, sauf deux éditions françaises et une hollandaise. 40 % datent du XVIIe siècle, le reste se répartit également entre le XVIe et le XVIIIe.

La littérature épistolaire a fait l’objet de plusieurs tentatives de classification, selon la théorie aristotélicienne des trois genres (démonstratif, délibératif, judiciaire), ou d’après la typologie de Jacques-Joachim Trotti de La Chétardie (lettres d’affaires, lettres familières, lettres galantes, billets doux et lettres de compliments). Elle est également marquée, depuis la Renaissance, par une tendance continue à passer de la sphère privée à la divulgation publique. Ainsi Annibale Guasco publia dans un même recueil, imprimé à Trévise en 1603, ses madrigaux et sa correspondance personnelle - qui comprenait des lettres de compliments et d’envoi de sa production poétique.

Le Del secretario overo Formulario di lettere missive et responsive de Francesco Sansovino, publié à Venise en 1569 et réédité en 1580, constitue l’un des plus remarquables de ces manuels qui fournissaient des modèles et enseignaient les règles d’usage de l’art épistolaire. On citera encore le recueil de correspondance professionnelle de Bernardino Baldoni, qui comprend propositions d’emploi et réponses (Il secretario, 1628), ou le traité de Bartolomeo Zucchi (L'idea del segretario…rappresentata & in un trattato de l'imitatione, e ne le lettere di principi, e d'altri signori, 1600) qui rassemble des lettres de la plupart des épistoliers connus, depuis l’Antiquité jusqu’au Tasse et à Guarini. Le succès du genre conduisit aussi plusieurs éditeurs à traduire et éditer des épistoliers anciens, comme Cicéron, Horace ou Ovide.

Jeannine Basso, Le genre épistolaire en langue italienne, 1538-1662 : répertoire chronologique et analytique. Rome, Bulzoni, 1990.

Marcel-Lenoir

Environ 200 lettres et une vingtaine de textes manuscrits
Correspondance, textes, croquis

Jules Oury (1872-1931), fils d'un orfèvre de Montauban, fut au début du XXe siècle une figure de la bohème artistique parisienne sous le pseudonyme de Marcel-Lenoir. Dessinateur, graveur, enlumineur, peintre, il a developpé en marge des courants artistiques du temps, une œuvre protéiforme – de l'estampe à la fresque – tour à tour symboliste, néo-classique ou mystique. Il publia également en 1908 un recueil de poèmes, de pensées et d'aphorismes sous le titre de Raison ou Déraison.
Le fonds Marcel-Lenoir, constitué d'archives privées, provient de Zoé Chappé (1874-1951), pendant une dizaine d'années la compagne et la muse de Marcel-Lenoir qui l'appelle Géo et la considère comme « Madame Marcel-Lenoir » bien que le mariage n'ait jamais été officialisé. À la correspondance entre Marcel-Lenoir et Géo, qui, au-delà de sa dimension personnelle, donne de nombreux détails sur le travail de Marcel-Lenoir durant les années 1909-1920, s'ajoutent des lettres adressées au peintre par ses amis, admirateurs ou confrères parmi lesquels Guillaume Apollinaire, Antonin Artaud, Bourdelle, Rodin... Divers écrits de Marcel-Lenoir, pour certains comportant des esquisses, complètent cet ensemble, légué par Zoé Chappé à la Bibliothèque Mazarine où exerçait alors la belle-sœur de Marcel-Lenoir, Suzanne Oury.
Le fonds est entièrement  décrit dans Calames et fait actuellement l'objet d'une étude approfondie en partenariat avec l'équipe du Musée Marcel-Lenoir à Montricoux et particulièrement avec Mme Marie-Ange Namy, spécialiste de l'œuvre de Marcel-Lenoir à qui elle consacre actuellement une thèse d'Histoire de l'art.

Genealogy and Heraldry

2200 documents
manuscripts, printed books

Of all the auxiliary sciences of history, genealogy and heraldry are probably the best represented in the Library's collections.
The early part of the collection – the historic core and the revolutionary confiscations – accounts for some 200 titles, to which should be added about 120 manuscripts. It includes the classic reference works: treatises on coats of arms, genealogies and armorial bearings for the nobility, royal officials, judicial institutions, orders of knighthood, congregations, etc., and the genealogical history of the great families. This collection swelled in the 1880s, because the ministerial decree which moved the library of the learned societies into the Mazarine's buildings brought an influx of documentation on local and regional French history. The decree attributed general works of history and local archaeology directly to the Mazarine Library. When the library of the learned societies left, in 1888, this trend continued, in particular with the attribution of legal deposit copies of books on heraldry, and was confirmed decisively with the reform of the legal deposit in 1925, which sent the Library a copy of the printer's legal deposit of all French publications on local history. This attribution enabled the Library to accompany the broadening and democratisation of genealogical research in the last quarter of the twentieth century, shown by numerous publications, monographs (1,000 since 1975, compared with a third of that number up to that date), local, departmental or regional collections or journals (at least 20 on genealogy alone) published by specialist associations or learned societies from all over France. The library adds to or updates its reference works, in particular by the regular acquisition of genealogical and heraldic tools, available in open access.
The Library's heritage collections, both manuscripts and printed books, constitute a considerable corpus of heraldic devices, painted, drawn, printed, or engraved coats of arms.

Charles-Hippolyte de Paravey

490 documents
Printed books

On 4 November 1880, the library accepted a gift from the heirs of Charles-Hippolyte Paravey. The 490 works, including about a hundred brochures and reprints bound in volumes (i.e. about 270 19th-century works up until 1865, 185 from the 18th century, 30 from the 17th, 3 from the 16th) were listed and catalogued during the first semester of 1881, and integrated in the library by format.

Paravey was born in Fumay (in the present-day département of the Ardennes) on 25 September 1787 and died in Saint Germain en Laye en 1871. He studied at the Ecole centrale in Charleville-Mézières and was admitted to the École polytechnique in 1803, later studying at the Ecole d'application des Ponts et Chaussées (1806). As a young engineer under the French Empire, he worked in Mons, Brussels, Ghent, Arles, and Clermont-Ferrand. Lieutenant with the Engineers in 1813, he joined the Department of Civil Engineering in 1814 and retired in 1848. At the same time, he was deputy inspector of the École polytechnique in 1816, resisting government efforts to close the school down. He was a founder member of the Société asiatique in 1822. From the 1820s – and until the 1860s – he developed a theory on the history of civilisations, which he expounded in studies on the measurement of time, cosmology, the zodiac, linguistics and mythology. He considered that all civilisations originated in somewhere in the Near or Middle East, before the Deluge. Although he stayed within strict Catholic lines, true to the Biblical tradition, his extensive comparativism was original.

His intellectual roaming took him from ancient Egypt to the Americas, from the far North to the South Seas, from ancient Europe to Asia (especially China). He travelled widely in France and abroad, meeting and corresponding with European scholars. Over nearly half a century he regularly sent his studies to the Academy of Sciences, without ever becoming a member of the Institute, where he had many critics. He was a traditionalist, opposing Biot, Arago or Humboldt, and the materialists in general; he usually published in the Annales de la philosophie chrétienne, L'Université catholique or La France littéraire, artistique et scientifique (Lyons); the Journal asiatique accepted only two of his articles. He was deeply attached to the Pyrenees.

The Paravey collection forms a coherent whole: land and sea voyages, exploration, discoveries, missions, colonisation, geography, ethnography, manners and customs, archaeology, history of the continents, countries, archipelagos and islands of the Old and New Worlds form the bulk of a collection that is almost exclusively French, but includes numerous translations of Spanish, Portuguese, English, Dutch or German texts.
Paravey's copious marginal notes reveal the history of the collection and his working methods. Paravey annotated his books, sometimes making cutting comments about a text or author. A penchant for China and Chinese can be seen in frequent marginal notes in which he tried to translate a term from another civilisation into ideograms or phonetics. This collection gives a glimpse of a library that was read and used, a tool and a working document for a researcher on the fringe of the academic world, but typical of the scientific milieus of the first half of the nineteenth century.

Jean-Claude DROUIN, « Un esprit original du XIXe siècle : le chevalier de Paravey (1787-1871) », Revue d'histoire de Bordeaux et du département de la Gironde, 1970, p. 65-78.

Xavier of Saxony

About a hundred documents
20 manuscripts, several tens of printed books

Prince Francis-Xavier (1730-1806), the second son of the house of Saxony, had a turbulent career. Despite his military success during the Seven Years War, he did not obtain the throne of Poland as he wished. He was administrator of Saxony from 1763 to 1768, but his bid to become Grand Master of the Order of Teutonic Knights failed. He then settled in France, taking advantage of the fact that he was the favourite brother of the Dauphine Marie-Josèphe (1731-1767), the mother of Louis XVI and the last two Bourbon kings. Dividing his time between the court, his Paris residence and two properties he bought in Champagne, Chaumot and more importantly Pont-sur-Seine (a chateau built by Le Muet for the Superintendent of Finance, Claude Bouthillier de Chavigny), he prepared to end his days peacefully under the name of the Count of Lusatia. The French Revolution decided otherwise and the prince fled France in 1791, leaving most of his collections, furniture and archives in the chateau in Pont, which were confiscated. Xavier of Saxony died in Dresden on 21 June 1806.

The Mazarine has numerous printed or manuscript volumes that once belonged to Xavier of Saxony. Inventoried by the revolutionary authorities in Champagne in May-June 1793, the Prince's library caught the eye of Abbé Leblond, the director of the Mazarine since 1791. Leblond was a powerful adviser to the successive committees after 1790, whose task it was to survey and distribute the confiscated collections of books and artworks.

Die Gesellschaft des Fürsten : Prinz Xaver von Sachsen und seine Zeit / Hrsg. für das Schloßbergmuseum Chemnitz von Uwe Fiedler, Thomas Nicklas und Hendrik Thoss. Chemnitz : Ed. Mobilis , 2009.

Isabelle de Conihout, « La Bibliothèque de Xavier de Saxe, de Pont-sur-Seine à la Bibliothèque Mazarine », dans Mélanges offerts à  Christian Galantaris. Paris : Editions des Cendres, 2009, p. 215-224.

Georg Engelhard von Loehneyss, Della Cavalleria. 2° 4858 B [Res] Printed book, 1609, Della cavalleria, one of the most important equestrian treatises ever published and a magnificent book of festivities, was printed by the author, Georg Engelhard Loehneysen (1552-1622), who gave the elector of Saxony a copy of his book in 1611, probably this one. .
Mara R. Wade, "Publication, pageantry, patronage, Georg Engelhard von Loehneyss' Della Cavalleria (1609 ; 1624) and his Hamburg Tournament Pageant for King Christian IV of Denmark (1603)", Daphnis, 2004, p. 165-197.
 
reliure
M.A. Borghi, Disegni delle principali fabbriche, e delizie del serenissimo di Modena. 2° 4807-77 [Res. HR] Collection of drawings, 1771-1773, Very large volume bound in red morocco stamped with the coat of arms of Xavier of Saxony, containing nine large drawings representing the palaces and gardens of the Dukes of Modena in the late eighteenth century.. 45 x 60 cm
Bibliographie :
Isabelle de Conihout, "Le recueil de dessins des palais du duc de Modène de Michelangelo Borghi, 1771-1772, offert à Xavier de Saxe", dans Gaspare et Carlo Vigarani : de la Cour des Este à celle de Louis XIV, Milan, Versailles, 2009, p. 39-43.